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Search Queries in Arkime and OpenSearch Dashboards

OpenSearch Dashboards supports two query syntaxes: the legacy Lucene syntax and Dashboards Query Language (DQL), both of which are somewhat different than Arkime’s query syntax (see the help at https://localhost/help#search if connecting locally). The Arkime interface is for searching and visualizing both Arkime sessions and Zeek logs. The prebuilt dashboards in the OpenSearch Dashboards interface are for searching and visualizing Zeek logs, but will not include Arkime sessions. Here are some common patterns used in building search query strings for Arkime and OpenSearch Dashboards, respectively. See the links provided for further documentation.

  Arkime Search String OpenSearch Dashboards Search String (Lucene) OpenSearch Dashboards Search String (DQL)
Field exists event.dataset == EXISTS! _exists_:event.dataset event.dataset:*
Field does not exist event.dataset != EXISTS! NOT _exists_:event.dataset NOT event.dataset:*
Field matches a value port.dst == 22 destination.port:22 destination.port:22
Field does not match a value port.dst != 22 NOT destination.port:22 NOT destination.port:22
Field matches at least one of a list of values tags == [foo, bar] tags:(foo OR bar) tags:(foo or bar)
Field range (inclusive) http.statuscode >= 200 && http.statuscode <= 300 http.statuscode:[200 TO 300] http.statuscode >= 200 and http.statuscode <= 300
Field range (exclusive) http.statuscode > 200 && http.statuscode < 300 http.statuscode:{200 TO 300} http.statuscode > 200 and http.statuscode < 300
Field range (mixed exclusivity) http.statuscode >= 200 && http.statuscode < 300 http.statuscode:[200 TO 300} http.statuscode >= 200 and http.statuscode < 300
Match all search terms (AND) (tags == [foo, bar]) && (http.statuscode == 401) tags:(foo OR bar) AND http.statuscode:401 tags:(foo or bar) and http.statuscode:401
Match any search terms (OR) (zeek.ftp.password == EXISTS!) || (zeek.http.password == EXISTS!) || (related.user == "anonymous") _exists_:zeek.ftp.password OR _exists_:zeek.http.password OR related.user:"anonymous" zeek.ftp.password:* or zeek.http.password:* or related.user:"anonymous"
Global string search (anywhere in the document) all Arkime search expressions are field-based microsoft microsoft
Wildcards host.dns == "*micro?oft*" (? for single character, * for any characters) dns.host:*micro?oft* (? for single character, * for any characters) dns.host:*micro*ft* (* for any characters)
Regex host.http == /.*www\.f.*k\.com.*/ zeek.http.host:/.*www\.f.*k\.com.*/ DQL does not support regex
IPv4 values ip == source.ip:"" OR destination.ip:"" source.ip:"" OR destination.ip:""
IPv6 values (ip.src == EXISTS! || ip.dst == EXISTS!) && (ip != (_exists_:source.ip AND NOT source.ip:"") OR (_exists_:destination.ip AND NOT destination.ip:"") (source.ip:* and not source.ip:"") or (destination.ip:* and not destination.ip:"")
GeoIP information available country == EXISTS! _exists_:destination.geo OR _exists_:source.geo destination.geo:* or source.geo:*
Zeek log type event.dataset == notice event.dataset:notice event.dataset:notice
IP CIDR Subnets ip.src == source.ip:"" source.ip:""
Search time frame Use Arkime time bounding controls under the search bar Use OpenSearch Dashboards time range controls in the upper right-hand corner Use OpenSearch Dashboards time range controls in the upper right-hand corner

When building complex queries, users are strongly recommended to enclose search terms and expressions in parentheses to control order of operations.

As Zeek logs are ingested, Malcolm parses and normalizes the logs’ fields to match Arkime’s underlying OpenSearch schema. A complete list of these fields can be found in the Arkime help (accessible at https://localhost/help#fields if connecting locally).

Whenever possible, Zeek fields are mapped to existing corresponding Arkime fields: for example, the orig_h field in Zeek is mapped to Arkime’s source.ip field. The original Zeek fields are also left intact. To complicate the issue, the Arkime interface uses its own aliases to reference those fields: the source IP field is referenced as ip.src (Arkime’s alias) in Arkime and source.ip or source.ip in OpenSearch Dashboards.

The table below shows the mapping of some of these fields.

Field Description Arkime Field Alias(es) Arkime-mapped Zeek Field(s) Zeek Field(s)
Community ID Flow Hash   network.community_id network.community_id
Destination IP ip.dst destination.ip destination.ip
Destination MAC mac.dst destination.mac destination.mac
Destination Port port.dst destination.port destination.port
Duration session.length length zeek.conn.duration
First Packet Time starttime firstPacket zeek.ts, @timestamp
IP Protocol ip.protocol ipProtocol network.transport
Last Packet Time stoptime lastPacket  
MIME Type email.bodymagic, http.bodymagic http.bodyMagic file.mime_type, zeek.files.mime_type, zeek.ftp.mime_type, zeek.http.orig_mime_types, zeek.http.resp_mime_types, zeek.irc.dcc_mime_type
Protocol/Service protocols protocol network.transport, network.protocol
Request Bytes databytes.src, bytes.src source.bytes, client.bytes zeek.conn.orig_bytes, zeek.conn.orig_ip_bytes
Request Packets packets.src source.packets zeek.conn.orig_pkts
Response Bytes databytes.dst, bytes.dst destination.bytes, server.bytes zeek.conn.resp_bytes, zeek.conn.resp_ip_bytes
Response Packets packets.dst destination.packets zeek.con.resp_pkts
Source IP ip.src source.ip source.ip
Source MAC mac.src source.mac source.mac
Source Port port.src source.port source.port
Total Bytes databytes, bytes totDataBytes, network.bytes  
Total Packets packets network.packets  
Username user user related.user
Zeek Connection UID     zeek.uid, event.id
Zeek File UID     zeek.fuid, event.id
Zeek Log Type     event.dataset

In addition to the fields listed above, Arkime provides several special field aliases for matching any field of a particular type. While these aliases do not exist in OpenSearch Dashboards per se, they can be approximated as illustrated below.

Matches Any Arkime Special Field Example OpenSearch Dashboards/Zeek Equivalent Example
IP Address ip == source.ip: OR destination.ip:
Port port == [80, 443, 8080, 8443] source.port:(80 OR 443 OR 8080 OR 8443) OR destination.port:(80 OR 443 OR 8080 OR 8443)
Country (code) country == [RU,CN] destination.geo.country_code2:(RU OR CN) OR source.geo.country_code2:(RU OR CN) OR dns.GEO:(RU OR CN)
Country (name)   destination.geo.country_name:(Russia OR China) OR source.geo.country_name:(Russia OR China)
ASN asn == "*Mozilla*" source.as.full:*Mozilla* OR destination.as.full:*Mozilla* OR dns.ASN:*Mozilla*
Host host == www.microsoft.com zeek.http.host:www.microsoft.com (or zeek.dhcp.host_name, zeek.dns.host, zeek.ntlm.host, smb.host, etc.)
Protocol (layers >= 4) protocols == tls protocol:tls
User user == EXISTS! && user != anonymous _exists_:user AND (NOT user:anonymous)

For details on how to filter both Zeek logs and Arkime session records for a particular connection, see Correlating Zeek logs and Arkime sessions.